LA VOCE NEGLI INSEGNANTI

DISFONIA

depositphotos_28193789-Back-to-SchoolLA VOCE NEGLI INSEGNANTI

Perché spesso a fine anno si devono fare i conti con una voce stanca e affaticata?

Fine anno, tempo di vacanze! La pausa natalizia, tanto attesa da migliaia di studenti, è spesso considerata dagli insegnanti una parentesi necessaria per mettere a riposo la voce e poter quindi affrontare l’impegno di un altro periodo scolastico.

Il problema, che affligge migliaia di docenti delle nostre scuole, è dovuto al fatto che, nella vita quotidiana, l’insegnante tende a utilizzare la voce in modo protratto oltre i limiti fisiologici di affaticamento.

L’affaticabilità si manifesta con la nascita di sensazioni di disagio, di arsura, con la messa in atto di strategie di compenso, con la decadenza vocale in seguito alla fonazione prolungata nel tempo.

In una persona con corde vocali sane, la fatica vocale insorge dopo 4 o 5 ore, qualora venga utilizzata una normale voce di conversazione, dopo 3,4 ore (purché la prestazione vocale venga suddivisa in tre momenti intervallati da pause di almeno 10,15 minuti) se si tratta di utilizzo in voce pubblica. Spesso però le corde vocali degli insegnanti non sono completamente sane, perciò tali limiti devono essere ulteriormente ridotti.

Arrossamento del bordo libero delle corde, infiammazione diffusa, ma anche noduli o polipi, sono le patologie più frequenti.

Le cause? Malmenage e surmenage vocale (ovvero scorretto o eccessivo utilizzo della voce).

Prevenire questi disagi è possibile.

Alla comparsa dei primi sintomi sarà utile un controllo del foniatra o dell’otorinolaringoiatra, che valuterà le condizioni dell’organo fonatorio, attraverso un’osservazione diretta per mezzo dello specchietto laringeo, o grazie alla laringoscopia a fibre ottiche (un esame indolore che permette di vedere, fotografare e registrare in cd lo stato delle corde vocali e il loro movimento).

La soluzione del problema? Acquisire consapevolezza del meccanismo di gestione dell’organo vocale, attraverso un allenamento specifico.

Il training, effettuato da logopedisti che operano in modo specifico in tale ambito, consiste in una formazione che va dal controllo dell’atteggiamento posturale, al riconoscimento della fatica fisica attraverso l’autopercezione finalizzata ad una gestione economica della voce, dalla padronanza dei meccanismi respiratori, all’apprendimento delle tecniche di appoggio vocale che permettono l’utilizzo di alte intensità vocali nel rispetto dell’organo fonatorio.

Questo tipo di “educazione”, che mette al riparo da rischi di abuso e previene le patologie vocali, dovrebbe divenire parte integrante nella formazione di ogni insegnante. Un professionista che non sempre è consapevole dell’importanza e della cura richiesta da questo meraviglioso strumento di lavoro che è la sua voce.

 

 

 

 

 

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